The understanding of the origin of the intrinsic stress during the formation of polycrystalline thin films and coatings is a topic with deep technological implications, because residual intrinsic stress endures after the film is incorporated into a device. The accumulation of this stress under operating conditions causes the thermomechanical fatigue that is estimated to be responsible for 90% of mechanical failures in current devices.
12 November 2015
Viruses package their genome in a robust protein coat to protect it during transmission between cells and organisms. In a reaction termed uncoating, the virus is progressively weakened during entry into cells. At the end of the uncoating process the genome separates, becomes transcriptionally active, and initiates the production of progeny.